This section includes the physical or chemical transformation of materials, substances, or components into new products, although this cannot be used as the single universal criterion for defining manufacturing (see remark on processing of waste below). The materials, substances, or components transformed are raw materials that are products of agriculture, forestry, fishing, mining or quarrying as well as products of other manufacturing activities. Substantial alteration, renovation or reconstruction of goods is generally considered to be manufacturing. The output of a manufacturing process may be finished in the sense that it is ready for utilisation or consumption, or it may be semi-finished in the sense that it is to become an input for further manufacturing. For example, the output of alumina refining is the input used in the primary production of aluminium; primary aluminium is the input to aluminium wire drawing; and aluminium wire is the input for the manufacture of fabricated wire products. Manufacture of specialised components and parts of, and accessories and attachments to, machinery and equipment is, as a general rule, classified in the same class as the manufacture of the machinery and equipment for which the parts and accessories are intended. Manufacture of unspecialised components and parts of machinery and equipment, e.g. engines, pistons, electric motors, electrical assemblies, valves, gears, roller bearings, is classified in the appropriate class of manufacturing, without regard to the machinery and equipment in which these items may be included. However, making specialised components and accessories by moulding or extruding plastics materials is included in group 22.2. Assembly of the component parts of manufactured products is considered manufacturing. This includes the assembly of manufactured products from either self-produced or purchased components. The recovery of waste, i.e. the processing of waste into secondary raw materials is classified in group 38.3 (Materials recovery). While this may involve physical or chemical transformations, this is not considered to be a part of manufacturing. The primary purpose of these activities is considered to be the treatment or processing of waste and they are therefore classified in Section E (Water supply; sewerage, waste management and remediation activities). However, the manufacture of new final products (as opposed to secondary raw materials) is classified in manufacturing, even if these processes use waste as an input. For example, the production of silver from film waste is considered to be a manufacturing process. Specialised maintenance and repair of industrial, commercial and similar machinery and equipment is, in general, classified in division 33 (Repair, maintenance and installation of machinery and equipment). However, the repair of computers and personal and household goods is classified in division 95 (Repair of computers and personal and household goods), while the repair of motor vehicles is classified in division 45 (Wholesale and retail trade and repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles). The installation of machinery and equipment, when carried out as a specialised activity, is classified in 33.20. Remark: The boundaries of manufacturing and the other sectors of the classification system can be somewhat blurred. As a general rule, the activities in the manufacturing section involve the transformation of materials into new products. Their output is a new product. However, the definition of what constitutes a new product can be somewhat subjective. As clarification, the following activities are considered manufacturing in SIC:
This division includes the processing of the products of agriculture, forestry and fishing into food for humans or animals, and includes the production of various intermediate products that are not directly food products. The activity often generates associated products of greater or lesser value (for example, hides from slaughtering, or oilcake from oil production).This division is organised by activities dealing with different kinds of products: meat, fish, fruit and vegetables, fats and oils, milk products, grain mill products, animal feeds and other food products. Production can be carried out for own account, as well as for third parties, as in custom slaughtering. Some activities are considered manufacturing (for example, those performed in bakeries, pastry shops, and prepared meat shops etc. which sell their own production) even though there is retail sale of the products in the producers' own shop. However, where the processing is minimal and does not lead to a real transformation, the unit is classified to wholesale and retail trade (section G).Preparation of food for immediate consumption on the premises is classified to division 56 (Food and beverage service activities).Production of animal feeds from slaughter waste or by-products is classified in 10.9, while processing food and beverage waste into secondary raw material is classified to 38.3, and disposal of food and beverage waste in 38.21. This division does not include the preparation of meals for immediate consumption, such as in restaurants.
This group includes the manufacture of crude and refined oils and fats from vegetable or animal materials, except rendering or refining of lard and other edible animal fats.
manufacture of butter,manufacture of cheese and curd
This group includes the milling of flour or meal from grains or vegetables, the milling, cleaning and polishing of rice, as well as the manufacture of flour mixes or doughs from these products. Also included in this group is the wet milling of corn and vegetables and the manufacture of starch and starch products.
This group includes the production of bakery products, macaroni noodles and similar products.
This group includes the production sugar and confectionery, prepared meals and dishes, coffee, tea and spices as well as perishable and specialty food products.
This class includes the manufacture of ready-made (i.e. prepared, seasoned and cooked) meals and dishes. These dishes are processed to preserve them, such as in frozen or canned form, and are usually packaged and labelled for re-sale, i.e. this class does not include the preparation of meals for immediate consumption, such as in restaurants. To be considered a dish, these foods have to contain at least two distinct ingredients (except seasonings etc.).
This division includes the manufacture of beverages, such as non-alcoholic beverages and mineral water,manufacture of alcoholic beverages mainly through fermentation, beer and wine, and the manufacture of distilled alcoholic beverages.
This class includes manufacture of non-alcoholic beverages (except non-alcoholic beer and wine).
This division includes the processing of an agricultural product, tobacco, into a form suitable for final consumption.
This division includes preparation and spinning of textile fibres as well as textile weaving, finishing of textiles and wearing apparel, manufacture of made-up textile articles, except apparel (e.g. household linen, blankets, rugs, cordage etc.). Growing of natural fibres is covered under division 01, while manufacture of synthetic fibres is a chemical process classified in class 20.60. Manufacture of wearing apparel is covered in division 14.
This class includes preparatory operations on textile fibres and the spinning of textile fibres. This can be done from varying raw materials, such as silk, wool, other animal, vegetable or man-made fibres, paper or glass etc.
This class includes weaving of textiles. This can be done from varying raw materials, such as silk, wool,other animal, vegetable or man-made fibres, paper or glass etc.
This class includes finishing of textiles and wearing apparel, i.e. bleaching, dyeing, dressing and similar activities.
This group includes the manufacture of products produced from textiles, except wearing apparel, such as made-up textile articles, carpets and rugs, rope, narrow woven fabrics, trimmings etc.
This class includes all activities related to the manufacture of textiles or textile products, not specified elsewhere in divisions 13 or 14, involving a large number of processes and a great variety of goods produced.
This division includes all tailoring (ready-to-wear or made-to-measure), in all materials (e.g. leather,knitted and crocheted fabrics etc.), of all items of clothing (e.g. outerwear, underwear for men,women or children; work, formal or casual clothing etc.) and accessories. There is no distinction made between clothing for adults and clothing for children, or between modern and traditional clothing. Division 14 also includes the fur industry (fur skins and wearing apparel).
This group includes manufacture of wearing apparel. The material used may be of any kind and may be coated, impregnated or rubberised.
This division includes dressing and dyeing of fur and the transformation of hides into leather by tanning or curing and fabricating the leather into products for final consumption. It also includes the manufacture of similar products from other materials (imitation leathers or leather substitutes), such as rubber footwear,textile luggage etc. The products made from leather substitutes are included here, since they are made in ways similar to those in which leather products are made (e.g. luggage) and are often produced in the same unit.
This group includes the manufacture of leather and fur and products thereof
This division includes the manufacture of wooden products, such as timber, plywood, veneers, wooden containers, wooden flooring, wooden trusses, and prefabricated wooden buildings. The production processes include sawing, planing, shaping, laminating, and assembling of wood products starting from logs that are cut into bolts, or timber that may then be cut further, or shaped by lathes or other shaping tools. The timber or other transformed wood shapes may also be subsequently planed or smoothed, and assembled into finished products, such as wooden containers. With the exception of sawmilling, this division is subdivided mainly based on the specific products manufactured. This division does not include the manufacture of furniture (31.0), or the installation of wooden fittings and the like (43.32, 43.33, 43.39).
This group includes the manufacture of products of wood, cork, straw or plaiting materials, including basic shapes as well as assembled products.
This division includes the manufacture of pulp, paper and converted paper products. The manufacture of these products is grouped together because they constitute a series of vertically connected processes.More than one activity is often carried out in a single unit. There are essentially three activities: The manufacture of pulp involves separating the cellulose fibres from other matter in wood, or dissolving and de-inking of used paper, and mixing in small amounts of reagents to reinforce the binding of the fibres. The manufacture of paper involves releasing pulp onto a moving wire mesh so as to form a continuous sheet. Converted paper products are made from paper and other materials by various techniques. The paper articles may be printed (e.g. wallpaper, gift wrap etc.), as long as the printing of information is not the main purpose. The production of pulp, paper and paperboard in bulk is included in group 17.1, while the remaining classes include the production of further-processed paper and paper products.
This group includes printing of products, such as newspapers, books, periodicals, business forms,greeting cards, and other materials, and associated support activities, such as bookbinding, plate-making services, and data imaging. Printing can be done using various techniques and on different materials.
The material printed is typically copyrighted.
This division includes the transformation of crude petroleum and coal into usable products. The dominant process is petroleum refining which involves the separation of crude petroleum into component products through such techniques as cracking and distillation. This division also includes the manufacture for own account of characteristic products (e.g. coke, butane, propane, petrol, kerosene, fuel oil etc.) as well as processing services (e.g. custom refining). This division includes the manufacture of gases such as ethane, propane and butane as products of petroleum refineries. Not included, is the manufacture of such gases in other units (20.14), manufacture of industrial gases (20.11), extraction of natural gas (methane, ethane, butane or propane) (06.20), and manufacture of fuel gas, other than petroleum gases (e.g. coal gas, water gas, producer gas, gasworks gas) (35.21). The manufacture of petrochemicals from refined petroleum is classified in division 20.
This subclass includes the manufacture of liquid or gaseous fuels or other products from crude petroleum,bituminous minerals or their fractionation products. Petroleum refining involves one or more of the following activities: fractionation; straight distillation of crude oil; and cracking.
This division includes the transformation of organic and inorganic raw materials by a chemical process and the formation of products. It distinguishes the production of basic chemicals that constitute the first industry group from the production of intermediate and end products produced by further processing of basic chemicals that make up the remaining industry classes.
This group includes the manufacture of basic chemical products, fertilisers and associated nitrogen compounds, as well as plastics and synthetic rubber in primary forms.
This class includes the manufacture of chemicals using basic processes. The output of these processes are usually separate chemical elements or separate chemically-defined compounds.
This class includes the manufacture of chemicals using basic processes, such as thermal cracking and distillation. The output of these processes are usually separate chemical elements or separate chemically defined compounds.
This class includes the manufacture of resins, plastics materials, and non-vulcanisable thermoplastic elastomers, the mixing and blending of resins on a custom basis, as well as the manufacture of non-customised synthetic resins.
This group includes the manufacture of explosives and pyrotechnic products, glues, essential oils and chemical products n.e.c., e.g. photographic chemical material (including film and sensitised paper),composite diagnostic preparations etc.
This division includes the manufacture of basic pharmaceutical products and pharmaceutical preparations. This includes also the manufacture of medicinal chemical and botanical products.
This division includes the manufacture of rubber and plastics products. This division is characterised by the raw materials used in the manufacturing process. However, this does not imply that the manufacture of all products made of these materials is classified here.
This group includes the manufacture of rubber products.
This group comprises processing new or spent (i.e., recycled) plastics resins into intermediate or final products, using such processes as compression moulding; extrusion moulding; injection moulding; blow moulding; and casting. For most of these, the production process is such that a wide variety of products can be made.
This division includes manufacturing activities related to a single substance of mineral origin. This division includes the manufacture of glass and glass products (e.g. flat glass, hollow glass, fibres, technical glassware etc.), ceramic products, tiles and baked clay products, and cement and plaster, from raw materials to finished articles. The manufacture of shaped and finished stone and other mineral products is also included in this division.
This group includes glass in all its forms, made by any process, and articles of glass.
This class includes the manufacture of intermediate products from mined or quarried non-metallic minerals, such as sand, gravel, stone or clay.
This group includes the manufacture of final products from mined or quarried non-metallic minerals, such as sand, gravel, stone or clay .
This group includes the manufacture of other non-metallic mineral products.
This division includes the activities of smelting and/or refining ferrous and non-ferrous metals from ore,pig or scrap, using electrometallurgic and other process metallurgic techniques. This division also includes the manufacture of metal alloys and super-alloys by introducing other chemical elements to pure metals. The output of smelting and refining, usually in ingot form, is used in rolling, drawing and extruding operations to make products such as plate, sheet, strip, bars, rods, wire or tubes, pipes and hollow profiles and in molten form to make castings and other basic metal products.
This group includes activities such as direct reduction of iron ore, production of pig iron in molten or solid form, conversion of pig iron into steel, manufacture of ferro-alloys and manufacture of steel products.
This group includes manufacturing other products by cold processing of steel.
This group includes the manufacture of semi-finished products and various castings by a casting process.
This class includes activities of iron foundries.
This class includes activities of steel foundries.
This division includes the manufacture of "pure" metal products (such as parts, containers and structures), usually with a static, immovable function, as opposed to the following divisions 26-30, which cover the manufacture of combinations or assemblies of such metal products (sometimes with other materials) into more complex units that, unless they are purely electrical, electronic or optical, work with moving parts. The manufacture of weapons and ammunition is also included in this division.
This group includes the manufacture of structural metal products (such as metal frameworks or parts for construction).
This group includes the manufacture of tanks, central heating radiators and boilers.
This group includes the manufacture of steam generators.
This group includes general activities for the treatment of metal, such as forging or pressing, which are typically carried out on a fee or contract basis.
This group includes general activities for the treatment of metal, such as plating, coating, engraving,boring, polishing, welding etc., which are typically carried out on a fee or contract basis.
This group includes the manufacture of cutlery; metal hand tools and general hardware.
This group includes the manufacture of a variety of metal products, such as cans and buckets; nails, bolts and nuts; metal household articles; metal fixtures; ships propellers and anchors; assembled railway track fixtures etc. for a variety of household and industrial uses.
This division includes the manufacture of computers, computer peripherals, communications equipment, and similar electronic products, as well as the manufacture of components for such products. Production processes of this division are characterised by the design and use of integrated circuits and the application of highly specialised miniaturisation technologies. The division also contains the manufacture of consumer electronics, measuring, testing and navigating equipment, irradiation, electromedical and electrotherapeutic equipment, optical instruments and equipment, and the manufacture of magnetic and optical media.
This class includes the manufacture of semiconductors and other components for electronic applications.
This class includes the manufacture and/or assembly of electronic computers, such as mainframes,desktop computers, laptops and computer servers; and computer peripheral equipment, such as storage devices and input/output devices (printers, monitors, keyboards). Computers can be analog, digital, or hybrid. Digital computers, the most common type, are devices that do all of the following: (1) store the processing programme or programmes and the data immediately necessary for the execution of the programme; (2) can be freely programmed in accordance with the requirements of the user; (3) perform arithmetical computations specified by the user; and (4) execute, without human intervention, a processing programme that requires the computer to modify its execution by logical decision during the processing run. Analog computers are capable of simulating mathematical models and comprise at least analog control and programming elements.
This class includes the manufacture of electronic audio and video equipment for home entertainment, motor vehicle, public address systems and musical instrument amplification.
This group includes the manufacture of measuring, testing and navigating equipment for various industrial and non-industrial purposes, including time-based measuring devices such as watches and clocks and related devices.
This class comprises manufacturing of search, detection, navigation, guidance, aeronautical, and nautical systems and instruments; automatic controls and regulators for applications, such as heating, air conditioning, refrigeration and appliances; instruments and devices for measuring, displaying, indicating, recording, transmitting, and controlling temperature, humidity, pressure, vacuum, combustion, flow, level, viscosity, density, acidity, concentration, and rotation; totalising (i.e., registering) fluid meters and counting devices; instruments for measuring and testing the characteristics of electricity and electrical signals; instruments and instrumentation systems for laboratory analysis of the chemical or physical composition or concentration of samples of solid, fluid, gaseous, or composite material; other measuring and testing instruments and parts thereof. The manufacture of non-electric measuring, testing and navigating equipment (except simple mechanical tools) is included here.
This class includes the manufacture of watches, clocks and timing mechanisms and parts thereof.
This class includes the manufacture of optical instruments and lenses, and the manufacture of photographic equipment.
This subclass includes the manufacture of optical instruments and lenses, such as binoculars, microscopes (except electron, proton), telescopes, prisms, and lenses (except ophthalmic); the coating or polishing of lenses (except ophthalmic) and the mounting of lenses (except ophthalmic).
This subclass includes the manufacture of photographic equipment such as cameras and light meters.
This class includes the manufacture of magnetic and optical recording media.
This division includes the manufacture of products that generate, distribute and use electrical power. Also included is the manufacture of electrical lighting, signalling equipment and electric household appliances. This division excludes the manufacture of electronic products (see division 26).
This group comprises the manufacture of power, distribution and specialty transformers; electric motors, generators, and motor generator sets.
This class includes manufacture of all electric motors and transformers: AC, DC and AC/DC.
This class includes the manufacture of non-rechargeable and rechargeable batteries.
This group includes the manufacture of current-carrying wiring devices and non current-carrying wiring devices for wiring electrical circuits regardless of material. This group also includes the insulating of wire and the manufacture of fibre optic cables.
This class includes the manufacture of current-carrying and non current-carrying wiring devices for electrical circuits regardless of material.
This class includes the manufacture of electric light bulbs and tubes, and parts and components thereof (except glass blanks for electric light bulbs), electric lighting fixtures and lighting fixture components (except current-carrying devices).
This group includes the manufacture of small electric appliances and electric housewares, household-type fans, household-type vacuum cleaners, electric household-type floor care machines, household-type cooking appliances, household-type laundry equipment, household-type refrigerators, upright and chest freezers, and other electrical and non-electrical household appliances, such as dishwashers, water heaters, and garbage disposal units. This group includes the manufacture of appliances with electric, gas or other fuel sources.
This class includes the manufacture of miscellaneous electrical equipment other than motors, generators and transformers, batteries and accumulators, wires and wiring devices, lighting equipment or domestic appliances.
This division includes the manufacture of machinery and equipment that acts independently on materials either mechanically or thermally or performs operations on materials (such as handling, spraying, weighing or packing), it includes their mechanical components which produce and apply force, and any specially manufactured primary parts. This includes the manufacture of fixed and mobile or hand-held devices, regardless of whether they are designed for industrial, building and civil engineering, agricultural or home use. The manufacture of special equipment for passenger or freight transport within demarcated premises also belongs within this division. This division distinguishes between the manufacture of special-purpose machinery, i.e. machinery for exclusive use in a specific industry or a small cluster of specific industries, and general-purpose machinery, i.e. machinery that is being used in a wide range of industries. This division also includes the manufacture of other special purpose machinery, not covered elsewhere in the classification, whether or not used in a manufacturing process, such as fairground amusement equipment, automatic bowling alley equipment, etc. This division excludes the manufacture of metal products for general use (division 25), associated control devices, computer equipment, measurement and testing equipment, electricity distribution and control apparatus (divisions 26 and 27) and general-purpose motor vehicles (divisions 29 and 30).
This group includes the manufacture of metal forming machinery and machine tools, e.g. manufacture of machine tools for working metals and other materials (wood, bone, stone, hard rubber, hard plastics, cold glass etc.), including those using a laser beam, ultrasonic waves, plasma arc, magnetic pulse etc.
This group includes the manufacture of special-purpose machinery, i.e. machinery for exclusive use in a specific industry or a small cluster of specific industries. While most of these are used in other manufacturing processes, such as food manufacturing or textile manufacturing, this group also includes the manufacture of machinery specific for other (non-manufacturing industries), such as aircraft launching gear or amusement park equipment.
This class includes the manufacture of special-purpose machinery not elsewhere classified.
This division includes the manufacture of motor vehicles for transporting passengers or freight. The manufacture of various parts and accessories, as well as the manufacture of trailers and semi-trailers, is included here. The maintenance and repair of motor vehicles produced in this division are classified in 45.20.
This group includes the building of ships, boats and other floating structures for transportation and other commercial purposes, as well as for sports and recreational purposes.
This class includes the building of ships, except vessels for sports or recreation, and the construction of floating structures:
This group includes the manufacture of transport equipment other than motor vehicles and rail, water, air or space transport equipment and military vehicles.
This division includes the manufacture of furniture and related products of any material except stone, concrete and ceramic. The processes used in the manufacture of furniture are standard methods of forming materials and assembling components, including cutting, moulding and laminating. The design of the article, for both aesthetic and functional qualities, is an important aspect of the production process. Some of the processes used in furniture manufacturing are similar to processes that are used in other segments of manufacturing. For example, cutting and assembly occurs in the production of wood trusses that are classified in division 16 (Manufacture of wood and wood products). However, the multiple processes distinguish wood furniture manufacturing from wood product manufacturing. Similarly, metal furniture manufacturing uses techniques that are also employed in the manufacturing of roll-formed products classified in division 25 (Manufacture of fabricated metal products). The moulding process for plastics furniture is similar to the moulding of other plastics products. However, the manufacture of plastics furniture tends to be a specialised activity.
This class includes the manufacture of furniture of any kind (other than domestic), of any material (except stone, concrete or ceramic) for any place and for various purposes.
This division includes the manufacture of a variety of goods not covered in other parts of the classification. Since this is a residual division, production processes, input materials and use of the produced goods can vary widely and usual criteria for grouping classes into divisions have not been applied here.
This group includes the manufacture of jewellery and imitation jewellery articles.
This class includes the manufacture of sporting and athletic goods (except apparel and footwear).
This subclass includes the manufacture of dolls, toys and games (including electronic games), scale models and children's vehicles (except metal bicycles and tricycles).
This class includes the manufacture of laboratory apparatus, surgical and medical instruments, surgical appliances and supplies, dental equipment and supplies, orthodontic goods, dentures, and orthodontic appliances. Included is the manufacture of medical, dental and similar furniture, where the additional specific functions determine the purpose of the product, such as dentist's chairs with built-in hydraulic functions
This division includes the specialised repair of goods produced in the manufacturing sector with the aim of restoring machinery, equipment and other products to working order. The provision of general or routine maintenance (i.e. servicing) on such products to ensure they work efficiently and to prevent breakdown and unnecessary repairs is included. This division does only include specialised repair and maintenance activities. A substantial amount of repair is also done by manufacturers of machinery, equipment and other goods, in which case the classification of units engaged in these repair and manufacturing activities is done according to the value added principle which would often assign these combined activities to the manufacture of the good. The same principle is applied for combined trade and repair. The rebuilding or remanufacturing of machinery and equipment is considered a manufacturing activity and included in other divisions of this section. Repair and maintenance of goods that are utilised as capital goods as well as consumer goods is typically classified as repair and maintenance of household goods (e.g. office and household furniture repair, see 95.24). Also included in this division is the specialised installation of machinery. However, the installation of equipment that forms an integral part of buildings or similar structures, such as installation of electrical wiring, installation of escalators or installation of air-conditioning systems, is classified as construction.
This group includes the specialised repair of goods produced in the manufacturing sector with the aim of restoring these metal products, machinery, equipment and other products to working order. The provision of general or routine maintenance (i.e. servicing) on such products to ensure they work efficiently and to prevent breakdown and unnecessary repairs is included.
This class includes the repair and maintenance of fabricated metal products of division 25.
This class includes the repair and maintenance of industrial machinery and equipment like sharpening or installing commercial and industrial machinery blades and saws; the provision of welding (e.g. automotive, general) repair services; the repair of agricultural and other heavy and industrial machinery and equipment (e.g. forklifts and other materials handling equipment, machine tools, commercial refrigeration equipment, construction equipment and mining machinery), including machinery and equipment of division 28.
This class includes the repair and maintenance of goods produced in groups 26.5, 26.6 and 26.7, except those that are considered household goods.
This class includes the repair and maintenance of goods of division 27, except those in class group 27.5 (domestic appliances).
This class includes the repair and maintenance of ships and boats. However, the factory rebuilding or overhaul of ships is classified in division 30.
This class includes the repair and maintenance of aircraft and spacecraft.
This class includes the repair and maintenance of other transport equipment of division 30, except motorcycles and bicycles.
This class includes the repair and maintenance of equipment not covered in other groups of this division.
This class includes the specialised installation of machinery. However, the installation of equipment that forms an integral part of buildings or similar structures, such as installation of escalators, electrical wiring, burglar alarm systems or air-conditioning systems, is classified as construction.